NATO is a defense organization loyal to many countries that has been at the heart of the international response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
The measures discussed and taken by the organization could determine whether the continent would end the war.
What is Nato and what does it stand for?
Nato, or North Atlantic Treaty Organization, is an intergovernmental military alliance formed in 1949.
Nato was founded after the Second World War, primarily to prevent Soviet expansion into Europe.
It was established with the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949 by 12 member states
Since then it has expanded to 30 member countries.
This organization is considered the largest and most powerful military alliance in history.
It is committed to individual freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law with all decisions made by consensus.
Nato’s permanent headquarters are in Brussels, where the Secretary-General presides over high-level decision-making bodies.
The current Secretary General is former Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg.
Infrequent summit meetings, heads of government and state meet at key moments in the Union’s development.
For example, summits are used to introduce new policy, invite new members to the Union, launch major initiatives and strengthen partnerships.
What countries is Nato a member of?
In 1949, there were 12 founding members of the Union.
These are: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Other member states that have joined since then are:
- Greece and Turkey (1952)
- Germany (1955),
- Spain (1982),
- Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland (1999),
- Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia (2004)
- Albania and Croatia (2009)
- Montenegro (2017)
- North Macedonia (2020)
What is the purpose of NATO?
Nato aims to protect the freedom and security of its members through political and military means.
It was founded mainly to keep Europe safe by preventing any attacks.
In 1949, this involved stopping Soviet expansion, preventing a resurgence of nationalist militarism in Europe, and encouraging European political integration.
But with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, Nato no longer had a clear purpose.
Over time, the organization has changed and is the focus of the proceedings as Russia Invades Ukraine in February 2022.
Their policies include Article 4 and Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty – where members pledge to assist any member state under attack.
What is Article 5?
Article 5 provides that if a NATO ally is the victim of an attack, every other member of the alliance will consider this act of violence an attack against all members and will carry out actions they deem necessary to assist an ally under attack.
When was Article 5 invoked?
Article 5 was invoked only once, after the September 11 attacks in the US.
Less than 24 hours after the 9/11 attacks, and for the first time in Nato’s history, the allies invoked the principle of Article 5.
There have been consultations among the Allies and collective action has been decided by the Council. The United States may also take actions independently, consistent with its rights and obligations under the United Nations Charter.
On October 4, after confirming the attacks came from abroad, Nato agreed to support the US through eight measures.
At the request of the United States, it conducted its first counter-terrorism operation – Eagle Assist – from mid-October 2001 to mid-May 2002. The force consisted of seven Nato AWACS radar planes that patrolled the skies. America.
How is Nato funded?
EThe country pays a certain amount into the Nato budget based on an agreed formula.
Nato requires member states to all spend two percent of their country’s wealth on defense.
The United States contributes the most to the alliance, funding about 70% of NATO spending.
This amounts to around £501 billion, or two-thirds of total spending on the national budget.
According to 2017 figures, Greece is the second highest contributor, spending around 2% of GDP, with the UK in third.
Luxembourg is Nato’s closest ally, spending less than 0.5% of its GDP, according to 2017 figures.
Belgium and Spain are the second and third worst offenders, paying around 0.9% to the union.
Some countries are not required to meet the 2% GDP target if they spend a lot of money on new military equipment and contribute to NATO operations.
Only five NATO countries hit the 2% target, including the UK.
https://www.the-sun.com/news/116216/nato-alliance-explained/ What is NATO and what does it represent? – US Sun