WARFARE has changed significantly over the past 100 years, including the design of explosives.
First discovered in the 1930s, EFPs have been used for almost 90 years. But how do they work and where have they been used?
What does EFP mean?
An EFP is an explosively shaped penetrator, also known as an explosively shaped projectile.
Other definitions for the device include a self-forging warhead and a self-charging fragment.
The projectile’s cylindrical shape is designed to effectively penetrate armor.
According to reports from soldiers, they are usually found in a copper or steel bowl filled with several pounds of explosives.
How does an EFP work?
When detonated, the explosive turns the metal into an aerodynamic projectile. able to pierce thick materials according to Wired.
The technology is closely related to the shaped charge or a HEAT (Hight Explosive Anti Tank) warhead.
EFP devices are reported to have the penetration power of heavy artillery but can scatter its contents without triggering an explosion.
EFPs offer an alternative way to destroy an explosive device and can be fired from a safe distance of just ten meters.
However, the improvised explosive device can be extremely dangerous and destructive.
When were EFPs used?
EFPs were first armed during World War II, having been produced after being developed as oil well perforators by American oil companies in the 1930s.
Early EFPs were unstable and could not be aimed accurately over a real distance, but improved versions were designed to make them more stable.
New designs had to be tested in a lengthy trial and error process.
The devices have since been used as warheads in multiple warfare systems. including the US Army’s CBU-97 and several anti-tank missiles.
EFPs have also been used for demolition and mining, and most notably for defusing terrorist bombs and unexploded mines.
In Iraq and Afghanistan, approximately 50-67% of American troops were either killed or injured by EFPs.
And between 2005 and 2011, EFPs injured nearly 900 US soldiers and killed at least 196, according to The Seattle Times.
https://www.the-sun.com/news/5697190/efp-explosive-meaning-explained/ What is an EFP? meaning explained